Revista de Economia e Sociologia Rural
https://revistasober.org/article/doi/10.1590/1806-9479.2019.186452
Revista de Economia e Sociologia Rural
Original article

Determinants of oil palm smallholder farmers’ adaptation strategy to climate change in Bengkulu, Indonesia

Determinantes de la estrategia de adaptación de los pequeños agricultores de palma aceitera al cambio climático en Bengkulu, Indonesia

Andi Irawan; Muhammad Syakir

Downloads: 0
Views: 85

Abstract

Abstract: Bengkulu is one of 10 provinces in Indonesia, which became a center of oil palm production. The aim of the study is to define how the determinant factors influence the oil palm smallholder farmer’s adaptation strategies on climate change in Bengkulu Province, Indonesia. Binary logistic regression method was employed to clarify the independent variables that influence farmers’ strategy adapted to climate change. Farmer experience and their household expenditure have the positive and significant effect on cropping diversification, while oil palm price has a positive influence in using land clearing without slash and burning. The factors that most influence the farmers' adaptation to climate change are farmer’s cooperation membership and membership of farmer group for agricultural extension. Because of their education and experience, they are not an important determinant on strategies adapted to climate change, but the farmer’s group for agricultural extension was very important in the adoption of comprehensive adaptation strategies to climate change, thus the understanding and skill of implementing strategies adapted to climate change among smallholder farmers needs improving by government extension agency. Therefore, ensuring access to information on climate change through extension agents is believed to create awareness and favorable conditions to adopt farming practices suited to climate change. It also means that improving the knowledge and skills of extension service personnel about climate change and adaptation strategies, and making the extension services more accessible to farmers is strongly recommended. For future work, new research involving more area with diversified ownership can be performed, not only smallholder farmer ownership but also private and state corporation ones. Moreover, the study about government action and policy for accelerating farmer's adaptation is important to be executed in the future.

Keywords

adaptation, climate change, oil palm, Indonesia, logit model

Resumo

Resumen: Bengkulu es una de las 10 provincias de Indonesia, que se convirtió en un centro de producción de palma de aceite, donde las plantaciones de palma aceitera son la mayor superficie de tierra entre los cultivos de plantaciones en esta región. Este estudio tiene como objetivo específico determinar cómo influyen los factores determinantes en las estrategias de adaptación de los pequeños agricultores de palma aceitera sobre el cambio climático en la provincia de Bengkulu, Indonesia. Se empleó el método de regresión logística binaria para aclarar las variables independientes que influyen en la estrategia de los agricultores adaptada al cambio climático. La experiencia de los agricultores y el gasto de sus hogares tienen un efecto positivo y significativo en la diversificación de los cultivos, mientras que el precio de la palma aceitera influye positivamente en el uso del desmonte sin quemarse. Los factores que más influyen en la adaptación de los agricultores al cambio climático son la membresía de cooperación de los agricultores y la pertenencia al grupo de agricultores para la extensión agrícola. Debido a su educación y experiencia no son un determinante importante de las estrategias adaptadas al cambio climático, el grupo de agricultores para la extensión agrícola fue muy importante en la adopción de estrategias integrales de adaptación al cambio climático, así como la comprensión y habilidad de implementar estrategias adaptadas al clima el cambio entre los pequeños agricultores necesita mejorarse por medio de la agencia de extensión del gobierno. Por lo tanto, se cree que garantizar el acceso a la información sobre el cambio climático através de agentes de extensión crea conciencia y condiciones favorables para la adopción de prácticas agrícolas adecuadas al cambio climático. También significa que se recomienda encarecidamente mejorar el conocimiento y las habilidades del personal de servicios de extensión sobre el cambio climático y las estrategias de adaptación, y hacer que los servicios de extensión sean más accesibles para los agricultores. Para el trabajo futuro, se debe considerar la realización de una nueva investigación que involucre más áreas con propiedad diversificada, no solo la propiedad de los pequeños agricultores, sino también las empresas privadas y estatales. Además de eso, el estudio sobre la acción del gobierno y la política para acelerar la adaptación de los agricultores también es importante para ser ejecutado en el futuro.
 

Palavras-chave

adaptación, cambio climático, palma aceitera, Indonesia, modelo logit

Referências

Abid, M., Schilling, J., Scheffran, J., & Zulfiqar, F. (2016). Climate change vulnerability, adaptation and risk perceptions at farm level in Punjab, Pakistan. The Science of the Total Environment, 547, 447-460.

Agency for Agricultural Research and Development. (2010). Indonesia Climate Change Sectoral Roadmap. Jakarta.

Agricultural Statistics. (2016). Statistical Pocket Book of Indonesia. Jakarta.

Alauddin, M., & Sarker, M. A. R. (2014). Climate change and farm-level adaptation decisions and strategies in drought-prone and groundwater-depleted areas of Bangladesh: an empirical investigation. Ecological Economics, 106, 204-213.

Ardana, K., Syakir, M., Irawan, A., & Wulandari, S. (2014). Simulation of the impact of implementation of the Sumatra corridor’s Masterplan for the Acceleration and Expansion of Indonesia’s Economic Development to the oil palm smallholder farmers’ household economy. Jakarta: Agency for Agricultural Research and Development of Indonesia Agricultural Ministry.

Barbier, B., Yacouba, H., Karambiri, H., Zoromé, M., & Somé, B. (2009). Human vulnerability to climate variability in the Sahel: farmers’ adaptation strategies in Northern Burkina Faso. Environmental Management, 43(5), 790-803.

Below, T. B., Mutabazi, K. D., Kirschke, K., Franke, C., Sieber, S., Siebert, R., & Tscherning, K. (2012). Can farmers’ adaptation to climate change be explained by socio-economic household-level variables? Global Environmental Change, 22(1), 223-235.

Bhaktikul, K. (2012). State of knowledge on climate change and adaptation activities in Thailand. Procedia: Social and Behavioral Sciences, 40, 701-708.

Bryan, E., Ringler, C., Okoba, B., Roncoli, C., Silvestri, S., & Herrero, M. (2013). Adapting agriculture to climate change in Kenya: Household strategies and determinants. Journal of Environmental Management, 114, 26-35.

Candradijaya, A. (2015). Farmer adaptive capacity to climate change in strengthening rice sufficiency in Sumedang regency, West Java province (Ph.D thesis). Graduate School, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor.

Carter, M. R., & Barrett, C. B. (2006). The economics of poverty traps and persistent poverty: an asset-based approach. The Journal of Development Studies, 42(2), 178-199.

Deressa, T. T., Hassan, R. M., Ringler, C., Alemu, T., & Yesuf, M. (2009). Determinants of farmers’ choice of adaptation methods to climate change in the Nile Basin of Ethiopia. Global Environmental Change, 19(2), 248-255.

Ehiakpor, D. S., Abbeam, G. D., & Baah, J. E. (2016). Cocoa farmer’s perception on climate variability and its effects on adaptation strategies in the Suaman district of western region, Ghana. Cogent Food & Agriculture, 2(1), 1-12.

Elum, Z. A., Modise, D. M., & Marr, A. (2017). Farmer’s perception of climate change and responsive strategies in three selected provinces of South Africa. Climate Risk Management, 16, 246-257. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.crm.2016.11.001

Festiani, R. A. (2011). Climate change impacts on revenue and determinants of farmers adapting to climate change; case study at village Kemukten, Sub-district Kersana, District Brebes (Undergraduate thesis). Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor.

Füssel, H. M. (2007). Adaptation planning for climate change: concepts, assessment approaches, and key lessons. Sustainability Science, 2(2), 265-275.

Gebrehiwot, T., & Van Der Veen, A. (2013). Farm level adaptation to climate change: the case of farmer’s in the Ethiopian Highlands. Environmental Management, 52(1), 29-44.

Gujarati, D. (2004). Basic econometrics (4th ed., pp. 595-615). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Houdian, H., Kurniawan, A., Mainil, & Nurul, I. S. (2014). Assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from transportation sector and industry in the province of Bengkulu using LEAP software (Undergraduate thesis). University of Bengkulu, Bengkulu.

Ivancic, H., & Koh, L. P. (2016). Evolution of sustainable palm oil policy in Southeast Asia. Cogent Environmental Science, 2(1), 1195032.

Jianjun, J., Yiwei, G., Xiaomin, W., & Nam, P. K. (2015). Farmers’ risk preferences and their climate change adaptationstrategies in the Yongqiao District, China. Land Use Policy, 47, 365-372.

Jiri, O., Mafongoya, P., & Chivenge, P. (2015). Smallholder farmer perceptions on climate change and variability: a predisposition for their subsequent adaptation strategies. Journal of Earth Science & Climatic Change, 6(5), 277.

Kurniawati, F. (2011). The impact of climate change on revenues and determinants of farmers adapting to climate change: a case study at village Purwasari, Sub-district Dramaga, Bogor (Undergraduate thesis). Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor.

Li, C., Tang, Y., Luo, H., Di, B., & Zhang, L. (2013). Local farmers’ perceptions of climate change and local adaptive strategies: a case study from the Middle Yarlung Zangbo River Valley, Tibet, China. Environmental Management, 52(4), 894-906.

Li, S., An, P. L., Pan, Z. H., Wang, F. T., Li, X. M., & Liu, Y. (2015). Farmers’ initiative on adaptation to climate change in the Northern Agro-pastoral Ecotone. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 12, 278-284.

Li, S., Juhász-Horváth, L., Harrison, P. A., Pintér, L., & Rounsevell, M. D. A. (2017). Relating farmer’s perceptions of climate change risk to adaptation behaviour in Hungary. Journal of Environmental Management, 185, 21-30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.10.051

Menike, L.M.C.S., & Arachchi, K.A.G.P.K. (2016). Adaptation to climate change by smallholder farmers in rural communities: Evidence from Sri Lanka. Procedia Food Science, 6, 288-292.

Nguyen, T. P. L., Seddaiu, G., Virdis, S. G. P., Tidore, C., Pasqui, M., & Roggero, P. P. (2016). Perceiving to learn or learning to perceive? Understanding farmers’ perceptions and adaptation to climate uncertainties. Agricultural Systems, 143, 205-216.

Niles, M. T., Lubell, M., & Haden, V. R. (2013). Perceptions and responses to climate policy risks among California farmers. Global Environmental Change, 23(6), 1752-1760.

Permana, D. (2013). Climate change impacts and local forest community adaptations in district of Sigi, Province of Central Sulawesi (Undergraduate thesis). Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor.

Pires, M. V., & Cunha, D. A. (2014). Climate change and adaptive strategies in Brazil: the economic effects of genetic breeding. Revista de Economia e Sociologia Rural, 52(4), 627-642.

Roco, L., Engler, A., Bravo-Ureta, B., & Jara-Rojas, R. (2014). Farm level adaptation decisions to face climatic change and variability: evidence from Central Chile. Environmental Science & Policy, 44, 86-96.

Rurinda, J., Mapfumo, P., Van Wijk, M. T., Mtambanengwe, F., Rufino, M. C., Chikowo, R., & Giller, K. E. (2014). Sources of vulnerability to a variable and changing climate among smallholder households in Zimbabwe: a participatory analysis. Climate Risk Management, 3, 65-78.

Sahu, N. C., & Mishra, D. (2013). Analysis of perception and adaptability strategies of the farmers to climate change in Odisha, India. APCBEE Procedia, 5, 123-127.

Siburian, I. M. (2009). Farmer responses to climate anomalies in the main area of rice production in West Java. Case study: Indramayu and Cianjur Regency (Undergraduate thesis). Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor.

Singh, C., Dorward, P., & Osbahr, H. (2016). Developing a holistic approach to the analysis of farmerdecision-making: Implications for adaptation policy and practice in developing countries. Land Use Policy, 59, 329-343.

Smit, B., & Wandel, J. (2006). Adaptation, adaptive capacity and vulnerability. Global Environmental Change, 16(3), 282-292.

Suckall, N., Tompkins, E., & Stringer, L. (2014). Identifying trade-offs between adaptation, mitigation and development in community responses to climate and socio-economic stresses: Evidence from Zanzibar, Tanzania. Applied Geography, 46, 111-121.

Sukartini, N. M., & Solihin, A. (2013). Respon petani terhadap perkembangan teknologi dan perubahan iklim: studi kasus Subak di Desa Gadungan, Tabanan, Bali. Jurnal Ekonomi Kuantitatif Terapan, 6(2), 128-139.

Sukma, A. P. (2012). Impacts of climate change and forest community adaptation strategy in Southern Central Timor District, East Nusa Tenggara (Undergraduate thesis). Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor.

Swe, L. M. M., Shrestha, R. P., Ebbers, T., & Jourdain, D. (2015). Farmers’ perception of and adaptation to climate change impacts in the Dry Zone of Myanmar. Climate and Development, 7(5), 437-453.

Tambo, J. A. (2016). Adaptation and resilience to climate change and variability in north-east Ghana. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 17, 85-94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2016.04.005

Tesfahunegn, G. B., Mekonen, K., & Tekle, A. (2016). Farmers’ perception on causes, indicators and determinants of climate change in northern Ethiopia: Implication for developing adaptation strategies. Applied Geography, 73, 1-12.

Thomas, R. L. (1996). Modern econometrics: an introduction (pp. 472-475). Harlow: Addison Wesley.

Tomich, T. P., Noordwijk, M., Vosti, S. A., & Witcover, J. (1998). Agricultural development with rainforest conservation: methods for seeking best bet alternatives to slash-and-burn, with applications to Brazil and Indonesia. Agricultural Economics, 19(1-2), 159-174.

Tree Crop Estate Statistics of Indonesia. Directorat General of Estate Crops, Ministry of Agricultural Republic of Indonesia. (2016). Palm oil. Jakarta.

Tripathi, A., & Mishra, A. K. (2017). Knowledge and passive adaptation to climate change: an example from Indian farmers. Climate Risk Management, 16, 195-207. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.crm.2016.11.002

Truelove, H. B., Carrico, A. R., & Thabrew, L. (2015). A socio-psychological model for analyzing climate change adaptation: a case study of Sri Lankan paddy farmers. Global Environmental Change, 31, 85-97.

Udmale, P., Ichikawa, Y., Manandhar, S., Ishidaira, H., & Kiem, A. S. (2014). Farmers’ perception of drought impacts, local adaptation and administrative mitigation measures in Maharashtra State, India. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 10, 250-269. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2014.09.011

Ustriyana, I. Y. G., & Dewi, I. A. L. (2017). Analysis of perception of chili farmers on sustainable development. American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 11(4), 23-29. Retrieved in 2017, October 11, from http://www.aensiweb.net/AENSIWEB/aejsa/aejsa/2017/July/23-29.pdf

Vervoort, J. M., Thornton, P. K., Kristjanson, P., Förch, W., Ericksen, P. J., Kok, K., Ingram, J. S. I., Herrero, M., Palazzo, A., Helfgott, A. E. S., Wilkinson, A., Havlík, P., Mason-D’Croz, D., & Jost, C. (2014). Challenges to scenario-guided adaptive action on food security under climate change. Global Environmental Change, 28, 383-394.

Widiyanti, W., & Dittmann, A. (2014). Climate change and water scarcity adaptation strategies in the area of Pacitan, Java Indonesia. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 20, 693-702.

Wood, S. A., Jina, A. S., Jain, M., Kristjanson, P., & DeFries, R. S. (2014). Smallholder farmer cropping decisions related to climate variability across multiple regions. Global Environmental Change, 25, 163-172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2013.12.011

Yegbemey, R. N., Yabi, J. A., Tovignan, S. D., Gantoli, G., & Haroll Kokoye, S. E. (2013). Farmers’ decisions to adapt to climate change under various property rights: a case study of maize farming in northern Benin (West Africa). Land Use Policy, 34, 168-175.

Yu, L. (2016). Agro-pastoralism under climate change: Institutions and local climate adaptations in northern China. Land Use Policy, 58, 173-182.
 


Submetido em:
11/10/2017

Aceito em:
28/07/2018

5d8a72420e88252366c51225 resr Articles
Links & Downloads

resr

Share this page
Page Sections