Revista de Economia e Sociologia Rural
https://revistasober.org/article/doi/10.1590/1806-9479.2019.191017
Revista de Economia e Sociologia Rural
Artigo original

A economia política do complexo Soja-Carne Brasil-China

The political economy of the Brazil-China Soy-Meat Complex

Fabiano Escher; John Wilkinson

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Resumo

O argumento desenvolvido no artigo, baseado na abordagem dos regimes alimentares, é que a formação do “complexo soja-carne Brasil-China”, a partir do início dos anos 2000, representa uma mudança policêntrica nas relações agroalimentares globais, impulsionada pelos interesses das corporações do agronegócio e indústrias alimentares, bem como dos estados nacionais, em uma direção Sul/Oriente, que desafia o poder estabelecido das grandes corporações transnacionais do Atlântico Norte. Com base na literatura contemporânea em economia política agrária e numa combinação de dados quantitativos e qualitativos, são identificadas as origens, características e dinâmicas do complexo soja-carne Brasil-China através de uma análise comparativa e relacional. Após uma breve revisão teórica, se examina a mudança nos hábitos alimentares e dietas de classe e a reestruturação das indústrias de carnes (especialmente suína) e rações do lado chinês, como polo importador, e o boom das commodities e a expansão na produção, na área plantada e nas exportações de soja do lado brasileiro, como polo exportador. Entretanto, apesar da importância do comércio bilateral na dinâmica do complexo soja-carne Brasil-China, recentemente tem havido também um crescente afluxo de investimentos chineses no agronegócio brasileiro. Nas conclusões, além de aspectos estritamente econômicos, aspectos políticos do complexo soja-carne Brasil-China são discutidos.

Palavras-chave

Complexo soja-carne Brasil-China, regime alimentar, agronegócio, comércio agrícola internacional, investimentos diretos externos

Abstract

Abstract: The argument developed in the paper, based on the food regime approach, is that the formation of the “Brazil-China soy-meat complex”, from the early 2000s, represents a polycentric shift in global agri-food relations, driven by the interests of agribusiness corporations and food industries, as well as national states, in a South/East direction, which challenges the established power of the large North Atlantic transnational corporations. Based on the contemporary literature in agrarian political economy and in a combination of quantitative and qualitative data, we identify the origins, characteristics and dynamics of the Brazil-China soy-meat complex through a comparative and relational analysis. After a brief theoretical review, we examine the change in eating habits and class diets and the restructuring of meat (especially pork) and feed industries on the Chinese side, as an importing pole, and the commodities boom and the expansion in production, planted area and shipments of soybean on the Brazilian side, as an exporting pole. However, despite de importance of bilateral trade to the dynamics of the Brazil-China soy-meat complex, recently there has also been an increasing influx of Chinese investments in the Brazilian agribusiness. In the conclusions, beyond strict economic aspects, political aspects of the Brazil-China soy-meat complex are discussed.

Keywords

Brazil-China soy-meat complex, food regime, agribusiness, agricultural international trade, foreign direct investments

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