Revista de Economia e Sociologia Rural
https://revistasober.org/article/doi/10.1590/1806-9479.2023.274229pt
Revista de Economia e Sociologia Rural
ARTIGO ORIGINAL

Produto Interno Bruto e pegada hídrica do agronegócio: comparativo entre países

Gross Domestic Product and water footprint of agribusiness: comparative between countries

Umberto Antonio Sesso Filho; Ricardo Luís Lopes; Carlos Alberto Gonçalves Junior; Emerson Guzzi Zuan Esteves; Patrícia Pompermayer Sesso

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Resumo

O objetivo do presente estudo é dimensionar o agronegócio dos países em termos de renda (Produto Interno Bruto - PIB) e água (pegada hídrica), além de estimar um indicador de sustentabilidade (água por unidade de renda). A metodologia é baseada na matriz insumo-produto e foi aplicada para 189 países com enfoque sobre as vinte maiores economias (PIB) no ano de 2015. O PIB do agronegócio mundial era de US$12,3 trilhões e a pegada hídrica de 151 trilhões de metros cúbicos, os valores representavam respectivamente 18% e 97,5% dos totais do sistema produtivo. A participação da renda do agronegócio no total do sistema produtivo dos países variou entre 4% e 61%. Os maiores valores do PIB do agronegócio foram obtidos para a China (US$ 2,5 trilhões), Estados Unidos (US$ 1,4 trilhão), Índia (US$ 0,67 trilhão), Japão (US$ 0,5 trilhão) e Brasil (US$ 0,43 trilhão). O custo ambiental do agronegócio mensurado em metros cúbicos de água para mil dólares de geração de renda (m3/US$) variou entre menos de cem metros cúbicos para cada mil dólares de renda gerada para mais de 200 mil, o que indica que existe a possibilidade do aumento da eficiência do uso da água e sustentabilidade por meio do desenvolvimento de novas tecnologias.

Palavras-chave

água, pegada hídrica, agronegócio, sustentabilidade, insumo-produto

Abstract

The objective of this study is to measure the countries’ agribusiness in terms of income (Gross Domestic Product - GDP) and water (water footprint), in addition to estimating a sustainability indicator (water per unit of income). The methodology is based on the input-output matrix and was applied to 189 countries with a focus on the twenty largest economies (GDP) in 2015. The GDP of world agribusiness was US$12.3 trillion and the water footprint of 151 trillion cubic meters, the values represented respectively 18% and 97.5% of the total production system. The share of agribusiness income in the total productive system of the countries ranged from 4% to 61%. The highest agribusiness GDP figures were obtained for China (US$ 2.5 trillion), the United States (US$ 1.4 trillion), India (US$ 0.67 trillion), Japan (US$ 0.5 trillion) and Brazil (US$ 0.43 trillion). The environmental cost of agribusiness measured in cubic meters of water per thousand dollars of income generation (m3/US$) ranged from less than one hundred cubic meters for every thousand dollars of income generated to more than 200 thousand, which indicates that there is the possibility of increasing the efficiency of water use and sustainability through the development of new technologies.

Keywords

water, water footprint, agribusiness, sustainability, input-output

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Submetido em:
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